In Ayurveda, which is an ancient Indian medical practice the name of which means “long life,” turmeric is described as a potent anti-inflammatory. How does it do it? Over the last 50 years, research has shown that the spice’s anti-inflammatory properties come from Curcumin, which is found in the spice. Curcumin has been found to slow or stop enzymes that cause inflammation, like cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase. It works through several other mechanisms as well. Studies have shown that Curcumin can modulate over 700 different genes.
Turmeric has antioxidants that can prevent free radical damage to cells. The antioxidant properties in turmeric come from curcuminoids. The antioxidants it delivers can be stronger than vitamin C, and up to eight times more potent than vitamin E. It is three times as powerful as pine bark extract or grape seeds, and it is strong enough to fight the hydroxyl radical, which many think of as the most reactive oxidant.
The curcuminoids found in turmeric support the functions of healthy blood and liver, healthy joints, and a person’s well-being overall. If these functions are supported, radiant and supple skin will come.
Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Turmeric’s other two curcuminoids are desmethoxycurcumin and bis-desmethoxycurcumin. The curcuminoids are natural phenols and are responsible for the yellow colour of turmeric. Curcumin can exist in several tautomeric forms, including a 1,3-diketo structure and two equivalent enol forms. The enol form is more energetically stable in the solid phase and in solution.
Curcumin can be used for boron quantification in the Curcumin method. It reacts with boric acid forming a red coloured compound, known as rosocyanine.
Curcumin is brightly yellow coloured and may be used as a food colouring. As a food additive, its E number is E100.
Curcumin incorporates several functional groups. The aromatic ring systems, which are polyphenols are connected by two α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups. The diketones form stable enols or are easily deprotonated and form enolates, while the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl is a good Michael acceptor and undergoes nucleophilic addition. The structure was first identified in 1910 by J. Miłobędzka, Stanisław Kostanecki and Wiktor Lampe. Curcumin is used as an indicator for boron in EPA Method 212.3.
Potential Medical Uses
Although many preclinical studies suggest Curcumin may be useful for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, the effectiveness of Curcumin has not yet been demonstrated in randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials.
A daily dose of 2 grams of Curcuma domestica extract was found to provide pain relief that was equivalent to ibuprofen for the relief of pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. An extensive survey of the literature shows many other potential uses and that daily doses over 3 months of up to 12 grams proved safe. Commercial capsules of Curcumin contain Meriva®, a phytosome formulation that aids the absorption of Curcumin into the bloodstream. However, as curcuma is known to inhibit blood clotting, it should be avoided for two weeks before major surgery and not used in conjunction with blood thinners such as warfarin and Plavix. It is also known to aggravate gallstone problems.
In Phase I clinical trials, dietary Curcumin was shown to exhibit poor bioavailability (i.e. low levels in plasma and tissues). Potential factors that limit the bioavailability of Curcumin include poor absorption, rapid metabolism, and rapid systemic elimination. Numerous approaches to increasing Curcumin bioavailability have been explored including the use of adjuvants, which interfere with glucuronidation; liposomal Curcumin; nanoparticles; Curcumin phospholipid complexes; and structural analogues of Curcumin (e.g., EF-24).
The bioavailability of Curcumin ingested in foods may be increased as a result of cooking or dissolution in oil.
In October 2010, working with Indena S.p.A., the worldwide experts in botanical extract technology, Good Health Naturally, introduced Curcumin, which includes an answer to better Curcumin absorption – phytosome technology.
Phytosomes are plant extracts bound to phosphatidylcholine (fos-fa-tidal-ko-leen), which is an essential component of human cells. Our bodies make phosphatidylcholine, but we can also get it from food and supplements. When taken orally, phosphatidylcholine is very well absorbed. To improve absorption, scientists at Indena found a way to attach Curcumin to phosphatidylcholine – the result is Curcumin! When you take Curcumin, your body readily absorbs the phosphatidylcholine and the Curcumin attached to it, resulting in more Curcumin reaching the cells that can benefit from it.